Madder (rubia). Origin: Europe Many different shades of red, traditional dye for wool. Both outer and inner layer are used for coloring.
Weld (reseda luteola). Origin: Mediterranean countries. Oldest yellow dye plant in the world, has been growing in Europe since the ice-age and is a reseda variety also seen in the Netherlands. Rembrandt also used the dye of this plant.
Indigo (indigofera tinctoria) made from various plants, the oldest one true indigo. Origin: India (called ‘indikon’ by the ancient Greek). A blue that draws you in, used by the Tuaregs to express wealth.
Cocchineal made of the cochineal insect (dactylopius coccus). Origin: pre-Hispanic Mexico. The deepest shades of red, used by the Indians to express their social status.
Walnut (juglans nigra). Origin: Kashmir, Nepal, Greece a.o. Shades of brown. Made both from the inside and outside of the nut.